Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 4/2002
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Peter Lieb, Täter aus Überzeugung? Oberst Carl von Andrian und die Judenmorde. Der 707. Infanteriedivision 1941/42.
War Criminal of Conviction? Colonel Carl von Andrian and the Killings of Jews committed by the 707th Infantry Division 1941 - 1943.
The 707th infantry division was one of the very few large Wehrmacht units that took part in the murdering of Jews on a great scale. The analysis of the private diary of one of the regimental commanders of this division, Colonel Carl von Andrian, sheds some light on the motives for which his own unit participated in the holocaust. On the other hand, von Andrian's diary clearly indicates where personal responsibility comes to a limit. His private notes give an impression of how an older Wehrmacht officer bound to conservative values let himself be drawn, without any considerable resistance, into the German war of extermination against the Soviet Union, in spite of his constantly recurring moral scruples and even if he was able to keep his regiment out of the most cruel crimes.
Hans-Walter Schmuhl, Hirnforschung und Krankenmord. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Hirnforschung 1937-1945.
Brain Research and Euthanasia. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research 1937 - 1945.
In the years from 1940 - 1945, some 700 human brains emanating from mentally ill or disabled victims of the Nazi euthanasia were examined by scientists at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin. The institute was linked to the apparatus of euthanasia in a variety of ways. This close association was initiated in 1937 when a change in the leading personnel at the institute effected a conceptual reorientation and a reorganization of its structure. A tight network of relations between brain research and psychiatric clinics in and around Berlin emerged. In addition, the decision to participate in research pertaining to euthanasia was considerably influenced by the military structures that had developed within the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research since 1939. Besides these decisive changes immediately preceding the mass murder, there is, however, a more long-term development within brain research to be traced, one which went back to a period much earlier than 1933 and which was favourable to opening up this field to eugenics.
Hermann Weber, Zehn Jahre historische Kommunismusforschung. Leistungen, Defizite, Perspektiven.
Ten Years of Historical Research into Communism. Achievements, Deficits, Perspectives
Looking back on the research into communism done since the communist dictatorships broke down and since their archives were (partially) opened, this article first draws a sketch of the state of research up to 1990. After pointing out the role of the archives and the problems of the availability of records, the most important results as well as the deficits of research into communism that have arisen since 1990 are described. Furthermore, the paradigm shift in research is discussed: instead of the examination of the communist movement and the governmental systems, it is now the communist terror that is in the focus of the interest. The huge number of empirical research works has also advanced the general assessment of communism. An historization of communism is, however, not yet in sight. Besides the perished regimes and their terror, the radical social movement of communism, with all its facets, must be taken into greater consideration.
Heinrich Augugst Winkler, Geschichtswissenschaft oder Geschichtsklitterung? Ingo Haar und Hans Rothfels: Eine Erwiderung.
Accurate Reconstruction or Historical Misrepresentation? Ingo Haar and Hans Rothfels. A Reply.
Ingo Haar's "reply" (VfZ3/2002), in which the author attempted to refute the criticism of his book "Historiker im Nationalsozialismus" [Historians in the Third Reich] expressed in the essay "Hans Rothfels - Hitler's Eulogist", is not convincing. Not only does Haar refuse to accept that his interpretation of the date of a key document, a radio broadcast of a speech by Rothfels, allegedly given on the occasion of the NSDAP's coming into power, is wrong; but he also presents further assertions which do not stand up to critical examination. This is particularly true for the thesis that Rothfels had been a follower of Franz von Papen and had called for a policy of German expansion that could only have accomplished in alliance with the National Socialists.
Wilfried Loth, Das Ende der Legende. Hermann Graml und die Stalin-Note. Eine Entgegnung.
The End of the Myth: Hermann Graml and the Stalin Note. A Reply.
The arguments which Hermann Graml put forward have proven to be not very convincing. There is a number of clues on Stalin's motives in the records of the Soviet foreign ministry, by no means did the initiative which resulted in the note come from the SED's leadership, the actors provably tried hard to win acceptance with the with the Western public, and in internal papers, the reunification of Germany was, again and again, mentioned as the goal of their manoeuvre. Even after the Western powers had rejected the demand for neutrality, Stalin always kept an eye on the West Germans' reaction, not on that of the people in the GDR. Graml's assumption that the initiative for the note had only been a propagandist manoeuvre mainly addressed to the population of the GDR must therefore be regarded as refuted.
Manfred Kittel, Die Radikalisierung der politischen Lebens am Ende der Weimarer Republik (1929-1933) und der Zweiten Spanischen Republik (1934-1936). Eine neue Studie im Rahmen des IfZ-Forschungsprojekts zu Faktoren der Stabilität und Instabilität in der Demokratie der Zwischenkriegszeit
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