Studia Mediaevalia Bohemica 1 (2009), 1-2
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|Zeitschrift:||Studia Mediaevalia Bohemica|
|Herausgeber:||Petr Sommer und František Šmahel|
|Centrum medievistickych studii,|
|Preis:||Einzelheft 95 CZK / 5 €|
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|Ausgabe:||1 (2009), 1-2|
HANA CHORVATOVÁ, Kultúrno-historický význam gombíkov
(Cultural and Historical Meaning of “Gombiks”), p. 7–19
Since the 1950s the term “gombik” has been used in Czech and Slovak archaeological literature to describe artifacts from the Early Middle Ages resembling buttons, which appear as an accessory of modern Hungarian as well as some Slovak men’s and women’s clothing. The most frequent occurrence of spherical pendants was recorded in graves of women and children; a lesser occurrence was recorded in graves of adult men. We may presume that the class that is referred to in written sources as dukes or even as noble faithful men applied it to jewelry – the “gombik” was probably created in the cultural space of this class and thus became indentifying symbol.
Keywords: Gombik, Early Medieval Culture, Medieval Archeology
MARTIN NODL, Maiestas Carolina. Kritické postřehy k pramenům, vyhlášení a „odvolání“ Karlova zakoníku
(Maiestas Carolina. Critical Remarks on the Sources, Declaration and “Revocation” of the Legal Code Proposed by Charles IV), p. 21–35
The author refers to an intentional connection between the legal code proposed by Charles IV and the Mining Code issued by Wenceslas II, which is evident from the nearly identical reliance on the divine origin of law that is manifested through the words of Dukes and Kings who may, due to divine sanctifi cation, amend the existing laws and issue new ones. The author demonstrates that the hypothesis about the “revocation” of the code by Charles IV, which is reiterated in literature, contradicts the preserved sources. By declaring that the code had not entered into force, Charles IV temporarily resigned on the complete sovereignty of his ruling power and defi ned the domestic aristocracy as being equal representatives of the state; this was, however, only a deed of the moment that had no profound eff ect on the relation between the new Emperor and the domestic aristocratic community.
Keywords: Charles IV, Maiestas Carolina, Legal Code, Medieval Law
PETR ČORNEJ, Klíče ke Karlštejnu
(Keys to the Karlstein Castle), p. 37–73
The Karlstein Castle was founded by the King of Bohemia and Roman Emperor Charles IV as his private castle and thus combined the role of the monarch’s personal sanctuary with the Roman as well as Bohemian ideals. During the time of Wenceslas IV, the office of the Burgrave of Karlstein would usually be held by members of the gentry who enjoyed the King’s exceptional trust. After 1436 Karlstein was designated as the place for permanent safekeeping of the Bohemian coronation jewels, crown archive, selected volumes of Records of the Land and rare holy relics. Retrospectively, the legalization of control exercised by both noble estates over Karlstein appears to be a part of a long historical process, in which the estates gradually weakened the ruler’s power and created a political system that was substantially different from the conditions before the Hussite Revolution.
Keywords: Hussites, Karlstein, Bohemian Estates, Coronation Jewels
ROMAN LAVIČKA, Českokrumlovský kostel sv. Víta v pozdním středověku
(Church of St. Vitus in Český Krumlov in the Late Middle Ages), p. 75–98
The Church of St. Vitus in Česky Krumlov was built around 1400 and is rightfully considered one of the finest examples of beautiful architecture. The adaptations of the church, which originated in the Late Middle Ages, have been unjustly overlooked until today; they are not too extensive, yet the analysis of their morphology reveals that the sanctuary and the gallery rank among the best masonry work under the rule of the Rožmberks. Same as in other towns and estates, the construction work in Český Krumlov was financed particularly by the burghers and the gentry, with the contribution of priests who, due to their education, personal ties and authority, undoubtedly influenced the selection of projects and masters called to work at the construction site. In our case, this is validated by the names of donors, preserved testaments and references, formal morphology and occurrence of mason marks in the region as well as by the priests in Krumlov and the surrounding areas.
Keywords: Late Medieval Church Architecture, Český Krumlov, Sanctuary, Medieval Masonry
TOMÁŠ VELÍMSKÝ, K problematice pozemkové držby českých velmožů a družiníků v období 11.–12. století
(The Issue of Land Ownership of Czech Noblemen and Members of the Princely Retinue between the 11th and 12th Century), p. 177–186
Generations of historians strived (and they still continue to do so) to deduce, what were the property rights of Mstiš to the homestead at the settlement near the Bilin castle and to the newly built Church of Saint Peter in its vicinity. The outcome of the analysis is unconvincing: Cosmas’ text itself does not enable any unambiguous conclusions on the nature of Mstiš’ rights to the homestead and church. It is possible that localities endowed with names derived from the names of castle custodians and other persons from the ranks of the princely retinue indicate one of the manners in which these individuals could gain land ownership. At least in some of the cases, the custodians could proceed to dispose of the property autonomously and bequeath it to an ecclesiastical institution or establish a similar institution themselves.
Keywords: Cosmas, Nobility, Medieval Colonization, Přemyslids
FRANTIŠEK ŠMAHEL, Basilejská kompaktáta, jejich zpísemnění a ratifikace
(The Compactata of Basel, their Drafting and Ratification), p. 187–229
The objective of this paper is to examine the drafting of the decrees that governed relations between the Hussites and the Roman Church after the Council of Basel; and, subsequently to answer the following question: what exactly did the decrees include and what did they comprise of? As all available information indicates, the basic body of the so called Compactata of Basel comprised of eight documents. In addition to the Compactata of Basel, the so called Imperial Compactata are referred to in literary sources; these decrees include five of Sigismund’s documents that were issued prior to his accession to the Czech throne.
Keywords: Compactata of Basel, Sigismund, Hussites, Council of Basel
PAVEL SOUKUP, Zur Verbreitung theologischer Streitschriften im 15. Jahrhundert. Eine antihussitische Sammelhandschrift aus der Erfurter Kartause
(The Spread of Theological Polemics in the Fifteenth Century. Anti-Hussite Manuscript from the Charterhouse of Erfurt), p. 231–257
The manuscript presently deposited in Staatsbibliothek Preusischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin under the shelfmark Ms. Lat. quart. 654 allows a reconstruction of ways in which recent theological literature used to be spread in the first half of the fifteenth century. The manuscript that is comprised predominantly of texts aimed against the Hussite teachings belonged to the library of the Carthusian monastery of Salvatorberg near Erfurt. This case study thus uncovers one of the channels by which the polemical tractates were spread during the times of intense literary production provoked by Bohemian heresy. The article is appended by a detailed list of works contained in the manuscript and an edition of previously unpublished text Responsiones facte ad quatuor articulos, which expresses the opinion of Catholic theologians of the first crusade who participated in the debate with the Hussite representatives in the Lesser Town of Prague in July of 1420.
Keywords: Medieval Manuscripts, Carthusian Order, Hussites, Anti-Hussite Polemics
AGNIESZKA JANUSZEK-SIERADZKA, Artykuły luksusowe na stole krolewskim w poźnośredniowiecznej Polsce
(Luxury Products on the Royal Table in Late Medieval Poland), p. 259–273
In late Medieval Poland, and by analogy in all of Europe, luxury at the royal table was represented by the use of imported choice products that were accessible only to a selected few. Similar to jewels, valuable robes or articles of precious metals, these products were kept in the royal treasury. In addition to the obvious culinary impact (however limited it may have been) and alleged healing powers of certain spices, the choice products most certainly played their part in issues of prestige and propaganda. The use of luxury products can be considered as an interesting indicator of change, particularly with respect to relations among the estates in late Medieval Poland. The presence of such products at the table or in the diet was the very article that distinguished the royal court from other courts of the late Medieval Polish kingdom; at the same time, it brought them closer to contemporary courts of the rulers of west Europe.
Keywords: Luxury Products, Spice, Medieval Cuisine, Jagiellon Monarchy, Late Medieval Poland
Studia Mediaevalia Bohemica
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