Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 1 (1998)
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Spiel mit hohem Einsatz. Über Adam von Trott
Christoph Maria Merki
"Ideologien sind für die Zeit nach dem Kriege zurückzustellen". Zur Widersprüchlichkeit der nationalsozialistischen Tabakpolitik
Großbritannien und die deutschen Reparationen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg
Der lange Weg zur Stabilität. Kennedy, Chruschtschow und das gemeinsame Interesse der Supermächte am Status quo in Europa
Look Before You Leap. Elektronische Publikationen in neuer Sicht
Goethe und der "Geist von Weimar". Die Rede von Werner Thormann bei der Verfassungsfeier in der Paulskirche am 11.August 1932
On Thin Ice: Adam von Trott
No single person exemplifies so well the failure of German collaboration with the British government to form an opposition movement against Hitler as does Adam von Trott. An Anglo-Saxon heritage as well as = several years study at Oxford University enabled Adam von Trott to = acquire a precise, not entirely unbiased, understanding of British politics. After joining the ranks of London emissaries during the late thirties, Trott's attempts to make contact with British government officials all but failed. Suspicion, misunderstanding and an obstinate adherence to appeasement, but certainly also Trott's inexperience, served to deter any willingness to communicate. After the outbreak of World War II, suspicion of Trott grew, since being a member of the German foreign office, it was assumed he was in collaboration with the Hitler regime. The reservations brought against Trott in the "Trott Controversy" were sustained until now. Only recently have efforts been made to modify Trott's image and offer a greater acknowledgement of the Widerstand as whole.
Christoph Maria Merki
Contradictory National Socialist Policy Regarding Tobacco
There was an exceptional demand for tobacco in Germany during and after World War II. Highly valued for its relaxing and hunger dulling properties, the Nazi regime undertook every effort to ensure the adequate supply of tobacco on the market. By doing so however, the National Socialist dictaorship counteracted its, for those times very advanced, preventive health care measures. By the end of the war, German society had not, as the Nazi regime's intent, reduced its tobacco consumption. Indeed, German society had become even more dependent upon tobacco, if not addicted to it. the essay examines the motivating ideology behindbehind Nazi health policy and its practical endorsement. Furthermore, the article explores the tobacco industry's strategy in promoting tobacco consumption and evaluates consumer behavior. The author bridges the gap between governement policy on the one hand and the daily needs of society on the other. The history of tobacco is a good example of how various traditional approaches to historical analysis, such as political, economic, cultural and social history, can be incorporated.
Britain and German Reparations, 1945-47
this article attempts to evaluate British reparations policy after 1945 in Germany. It suggests that security against future German aggression represents the dominant factor, implying as it did the removal of war potential by dismantling programme. the British authorities also wished to remove a relativly few high quality machine tools to the United Kingdom to assist with the export drive; but this always remained a subordinate objective. By October 1947, when a reduced reparations programme came into being in West Germany the aims of British strategy had not been achieved.The conclusion here is that Britain's relations with its American allies in Germany, and its membership of the Interallied Reparations Agency at Brussels played a part in frustrating British hopes. Quite apart from these factors, however, the British themselves were responsible for the failure, as they never gave reparations any real priority. Reconstruction of the German economy always took precedence.
The long road to Stability: Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Commonality of Interest to Protect the Territorial and Nuclear Status Quo in Europe
The article discusses the reasons for preserving the stability of European security in the early 1960's. The author delineates the development of American and Soviet rapprochement against the background of the Berlin Crisis (1958-1962) and the Cuban missile crisis thereafter. The author concludes that the newly established stability in Europe was not solely due to the balancing factor of a potentially mortal nuclear threat which kept both powers in check. Rather, the author argues, the gradual shift of both the Soviet and American position on the German question and the role of nuclear weapons, preserved the territorial and nuclear status quo in Europe. The moving toward an understanding between Kennedy and Krushchev began when direct dialogue was sought in the form of informal talks rather than by formal agreements. The most important aspect herein was the building of the Berlin wall, whereby Khrushchev symbolically defined the European spheres of influence- The ensuing placement of missiles inCuba took the pressure off Berlin and American security guarantees were no longer undermined. By the same token, Kennedy conceded the United States likewise objected to nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr, and, indeed, the control of US nuclear arms would never be shared with an ally, even in the context of multilateral forces. Furthermore, the United States was firmly committed to the deterrence of nuclear proliferation and would sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty. As a compensatiory gesture, so to speak, US troops remained permanently stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Look Before you Leap: Electronic Publications Re-considered
This paper explores the possibilities and problems associated with publishing historical documents in an electronic format. While acknowledging the tremendous capacity of the newest kind of technology to store and process vast amounts of information, the author is skeptical of this medium for a variety of reasons. Most important, the uncertain durabiltity of the new media presents a serious and ultimately insurmountable problem for publishing projects which are designed to have a lengthy shelf-life.
Werner Thormann's Addresss at the Paulskirche in 1932
Upon the occasion of Goethe's 100 year anniversary in 1932, proposals were made to have the celebration of the Verfassungstag coincide with self-reflection on Germany's great cultural heritage. The Reichsregierung hesitated, since similar plans to declare the Verfassungstag an official holiday in the 1920's had been thwarted by the National Right. In an address given at the Paulskirche inFrankfurt, the editior-in-chief of the "Deutsche Republik", Werner Thormann, demonstrated how contemporary Goethe was. In reply to Thomas Mann's famous speech on Goethe held on March 18, 1932, Thormann confronted his audience by raising the controversial question of the relationship between humanism and polititcs. Unlike Thomas Mann, Thormann did not uphold the general view of an unpolitical Goethe; he agreed with Thomas Mann, however, when he referred to Goethe to beware of a totally politicised society in an ever threatening National Socialist dictatorship.
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