Český časopis historický 107 (2009), 2
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|Zeitschrift:||Český časopis historický|
|Herausgeber:||Historický ústav Akademie věd České republiky (Historisches Institut der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik)|
|Preis:||110 € (für ganzen Jahrgang)|
|Ausgabe:||107 (2009), 2|
ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES
O „svobodné soukromosti“ pozemkového vlastnictví (K rozsahu a kvalitě velmožské držby v přemyslovských Čechách)
(On „unencumbered appropriation“ of landed property (On the scope and quality of aristocratic possessions in Przemyslid Bohemia))
When studying early state organisms in Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland, Hungary), specialist literature often uses terms such as landed „property“, „possession“ and „tenure“, without researchers simultaneously asking what qualitative features these „properties“ had in the 10th – 12th centuries and to what degree their holder could freely and fully dispose of them. To put it in other words, the question is whether and how the ruler’s sovereignty over the country and its population manifested itself. This study also makes use of non-traditional methods of history of settlement and it re-visits the question of which routes led to the formation of large aristocratic estates in the Earlier Middle Ages. Its conclusions contribute to the discussion on both the nature of early Central European monarchies and the preconditions, which initiated their profound 13th century transformation.
Key words: aristocracy, Bohemian State, Middle Ages, nobility, owner, possession, possessor, Przemyslid dynasty, „privatisation“, property, Central Europe
K modelu středověkého panovnického dvora jako sociálního systému
(On the Model of the Medieval Ruling Court as a Social System)
This study is a result of research devoted to the ruling court in the Middle Ages. Individual examples portray the ruling court of King Wenceslas II. (1283–1305). Here, the court is introduced as a social system, which is reflected in individual personalities, in the structure, representation and space. The social system and its fundamental features: structural-organizational elements and interaction, which form the basis of any social system, are emphasised as the only possible paradigmatic levels when forming a model definition describing a medieval court, which otherwise changes in time and space. In addition, different manifestations are displayed during the reign of each ruler following from the subjective approach of that ruler. Terminological terms familia, curia minor and major are analysed, as well as their use in historical sources. The second part is devoted to the mechanisms of communication, which the ruler’s favours mediate at court. Benefit or profit for courtiers, and the ruler as well, are judged to be joint factors in all the activities at a ruling court.
Key words: Social system, the Middle Ages, ruling court, Wenceslas II., curia minor, curia major, familia, communication, interaction, structure, normative behaviour, courtly conduct, curia, court, Bohemia
Stavba berlínské zdi. Hybatel modernizace společnosti v Západním Berlíně?
(Construction of Berlin Wall. A beginning of the West Berlins society modernization?)
The study aims to show the short- and long-term impacts of the construction of the Berlin wall that it had on West Berlin and its inhabitants. First, the society was frightened and panicked, and the West Berlin economy started to fall down. Nevertheless, in the long-term period the construction of Berlin wall became one of the most important modernization stimuli in the West Berlin’s history. In autumn 1961 the politicians started a plan of massive financial support, tax incentives, and founding of research activities including local universities that should have stopped the city´s decline. Due to this extensive plan West Berlin overcame the problems connected with the Wall’s construction and soon turned into one of the most important research, university, culture, and light industry centers of West Germany. Huge financial inflow enabled West Berlin to play a successful role as the „lighthouse or show window of capitalism in the communist sea“.
Key words: Germany, West Berlin, Berlin crisis, Willy Brandt, city society
DISKUSE / DISCUSSION
Pozoruhodná syntéza o československé meziválečné demokracii
(A truly remarkable synthesis on Czechoslovak inter-war democracy)
This essay analyses comprehensively Jiří Kovtun’s monograph Republika v nebezpečném světě (The Republic in a Dangerous World). At first, it briefly introduces its author, one of the most important historians in exile. Subsequently, the general outlines of his interpretation of the inter-war history of Czechoslovakia, from its foundation until President Masaryk’s abdication from presidential office, are laid out. This essay commends, among other things, the author’s robust efforts to interpret the development of the First Republic within the framework of pan-European politics. Further, it confronts his well-founded conclusions with the opinions of the revisionist stream of Czech historiography in the last decade of the 20th century.
Key words: inter-war Czechoslovakia, the First Republic, Czechoslovak foreign policy, Tomáš G. Masaryk
K nejnovější literatuře o sv. Prokopovi a sázavském klášteře
(On the Most Recent Research on St. Prokop and the Sázava Monastery)
Novel approaches to the issue of the foundation of the Sázava Monastery and the personality of its founder St. Prokop are presented by contributed papers in the Collection Svatý Prokop, Čechy a střední Evrope (Saint Prokop, Bohemia and Central Europe), Prague 2006 and in Petr Sommer’s Monograph Svatý Prokop. Z počátků českého státu a církve (Saint Prokop. From the Beginnings of the Bohemian State and Church), Prague 2007. Yet, individual authors do not exhibit unanimity in their views on the circumstances surrounding the foundation of the Monastery or regarding the sources of the Old Slavonic liturgy used in the Monastery in the 11th century. The views that the earliest Bohemian monasteries merely relied upon a share from the Prince’s income, as opposed to benefiting from their possession of land and villages, are criticised.
Key words: Christianization of Bohemia, the earliest monasteries, St. Prokop, the Old Slavonic liturgy
OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS
Výzkum pozdně středověkých náboženských dějin ve Francii. Bilance a perspektivy
(Research into the Late Medieval Religious History of France. A Summary and Perspectives)
This study is devoted to French research into religious history during the Late Middle Ages (13th–15th centuries). It focuses upon research done from the 1970s until the present day, inclusive of current projects, recently published works and works about to be published.
Key words: religion, historiography, the Late Middle Ages, France, current research, electronic data processing, electronic database
ZEMEK Petr, Reformace, protireformace a rozvinutí protireformačního katolictví v Uherském Brodě - křesťanská víra v proměnách času (Jiří Mikulec) S. 400 - CATALANO Alessandro, Zápas o svědomí. Kardinál Arnošt Vojtěch z Harrachu (1598-1667) a protireformace v Čechách (Ivana Čornejová) S. 402 - ADAM Robert - JANÁČKOVÁ Jaroslava - POKORNÁ Magdaléna - SAICOVÁ-ŘÍMALOVÁ Lucie - WIMMER Stanislav - MARTÍNEK František (eds.), Božena Němcová. Korespondence, I-IV (Milena Lenderová) S. 406 - THER Philipp, In der Mitte der Gesellschaft. Operntheater in Zentraleuropa 1815-1914 (Michal Pullmann) S. 411 – BRANDES Detlef, Die Sudetendeutschen im Krisenjahr 1938 (Jaroslav Šebek) S. 413 - BRYANT Chad, Prague in Black. Nazi Rule and Czech Nationalism (Nina Lohmann) S. 416 - WIEDEMANN Andreas, „Komm mit uns das Grenzland aufbauen!“ Ansiedlung und neue Strukturen in den ehemaligen Sudetengebieten 1945-1952 (Jiří Pešek) S. 422 - HENRI Daniel - LE QUINTREC Guillaume - GEISS Peter (edd.), Histoire / Geschichte. Europa und die Welt vom Wiener Kongress bis 1945; TÍŽ, Histoire/Geschichte – L´Europe et le monde du congrès de Vienne à 1945 (Lucie Filipová) S. 426
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