Český časopis historický 109 (2011), 2
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|Zeitschrift:||Český časopis historický|
|Herausgeber:||Historický ústav Akademie věd České republiky (Historisches Institut der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik)|
|Preis:||Jahresabonnement (4 Ausgaben) € 110|
|Ausgabe:||109 (2011), 2|
ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
OBSAH / CONTENTS
STUDIE / STUDIES
Trade and Civilization in the History and the Evolution of Civilizations
(Prologomena) (Obchod a civilizace v dějinách a evoluce civilizací /Prologomena/), S. 193-217
Trade relations played always a substancial role in the historical development. Often, these were present in the background of major war conflicts and social unrests. This paper traces the mechanism of mutual civilization influencing of various cultures that possess different hirerarchies of value, however, at the period researched, these came to a comparable level of social and technical development. Bilaterally advantageous trade relations acted as a form of transmission of civilization models into other cultures.
Key words: Trade, Civilization, History, Culture, Technical Development, Evolution of Civilizations
INGLE Devendra Samadhan
The Role of Buddhism in Ancient Indo-Roman trade (200BC-200AD)
(Role buddhismu v obchodních vztazích mezi Indií a starověkým Římem v období mezi 2. stoletím před naším letopočtem a 2. stoletím našeho letopočtu), S. 218-234
The age of the Shakas, Kushanas and Satavahanas (200 BC-AD 250) was the most flourishing period in the history of trade and commerce in ancient India. Particularly this period witnessed remarkable growth in the trade relations between Ancient India and Ancient Rome. Also this period is known for the dominance of Buddhism in the history of India. Buddhism was supported by royal patronage as well as by the laity who were engaged as a productive force in the fields of agriculture, crafts, trade and commerce. Historical sources suggest that Buddhism functioned as driving factor in this commercial activities. Ancient Buddhist texts, travelogues of Roman traders and the archeological evidences validate this fact. In this paper, my attempt is to throw light on some questions such as how the Buddhist ideology and civilization promote the economic growth in this period? How did this trade declined after the downfall of Buddhism in the cultural conflict with Brahmanical religion which was antagonist to Buddhism?
Key words: Anciet Age, Indo-Roman Trade, Buddhism, Brahmanical religion, Ideology, Civilization
Silver and glass in medieval trade and cultural exchange between Venice and the Bohemian Kingdom
(Stříbro a sklo ve středověkém obchodě a kulturní výměně mezi Benátkami a Českým královstvím), S. 235-261
The study was written with two main intentions. The first idea is to refer to the connection between reforms of coins, weights and measures, realized in the 1260s and 1270s from the decision of Přemysl II Ottokar, King of Bohemia (1253-1278), and legal and administrative changes, carried out at the mint of Venice (Zecca) and the house of German merchants (Fondaco dei Tedeschi), as a background for the development of trade contacts between the Kingdom of Bohemia and Venice. The second aim is to point to the fact that this long-distance trade had a cultural dimension. The archaeological finds from the Czech lands support a direct connection between exported silver bullion and imported Islamic and Italian glass, linked to a high dining culture focused on a wine consumption.
Key words: Long-distance trade, cultural exchange, monetary reforms, the Kingdom of Bohemia, Venice, the 13th century
CHILOSI David - VOLCKART Oliver
The Knowledge Economy of the Renaissance: The Advent of Printing and Financial Integration in Central Europe
(Znalostní ekonomika renesanční doby /počátky knihtisku a finanční integrace střední Evropy/), S. 262-282
This paper examines the role of the advent of printing in explaining financial integration in Central Europe until 1520. It finds that printing promoted financial integration because it triggered a fall in the costs of transmitting information, assisted the functioning of the Holy Roman Empire in major centres and significantly increased the financial importance of human capital.
Key words: financial integration, Renaissance, printing, quantitative analysis
Merchant Families and Business Networks in the Anglo-Dutch trade of 1668-1680 (Based on the Marescoe-David Letters)
(Kupecké rodiny a obchodní síť v rámci anglicko-nizozemského trhu v letech 1668-1680 /na základě korespondence londýnské obchodní společnosti Marescoe-David/), S. 283-293
This research article will examine merchant families and their businesses involving shipments between England and the Netherlands during the late seventeenth century. Despite the fact that historians have paid sufficient attention to merchant families during the pre-industrial period, these studies are still very important. This paper raises, illustrates and discusses the following questions: What role did merchant families play in early modern merchant settlements in England and the Netherlands in this period? Which goods were exchanged through export/import? The questions and answers in the paper are built on a detailed analysis of published primary sources: a select set of 74 personal business letters sent to the Marescoe-David Company of London (an inter-related London-based merchants family) from prominent Dutch merchants between 1668 and 1680.
Key words: Anglo-Dutch Trade, 17th Century, Letters, Marescoe-David Company, London, Merchants
Venetian Merchants in the Lower Danube Area and their role in the development of the international trade exchanges in the Seventeenth Century
(Benátští obchodníci v oblasti Dolního Podunají a jejich role ve vývoji mezinárodního obchodu v 17. století), S. 294-327
This paper is focuses on a topic which is very important for the better knowledge of the social and political evolution of the South-Eastern European area.
The role of the Venetians, and also of the Greek, Armenian and Macedoromanian merchants, subject of the Venice Republic, was very important in Eastern Europe not only from an economic perspective, but also in what concerns the establishment and financial support given to confessional and secular schools, to publication of books in their national languages and to efforts at manufacturing and preserving their collective identity.
Key words: international trade, 17th Century, Venetian Merchants
Household Formation in Bohemia 1700-1850: Inheritance Practice and Family Strategy
(Formování domácností v Čechách v letech 1700-1850: dědická praxe a rodinná strategie), S. 328-343
The article deals with the influence of inheritance law on the setting up and formation of rural households in western Bohemia in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th centuries. It focuses on possible differences in the three areas: 1) as regards the ratio of transfers between relatives and non-relatives, 2) in relation to wedding and property transfer, 3) in relation to the percentage of women as heads of household. The author shows that family strategies reacted sensitively to the changing framework such as altered legal practices.
Key words: Household formation, inheritance practice, family strategy
OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEW ARTICLES AND REVIEWS
Modern History of the Czechoslovak State from a Revisionist Point of View: HEIMANN Mary, Czechoslovakia. The State that Failed
(Moderní dějiny československého státu v revizionistickém pohledu: HEIMANN Mary, Czechoslovakia. The State that Failed), S. 344-358
This review article scrutinizes a history of Czechoslovakia from the pen of the British based, American born historian Mary Heimann. This review critically assesses some of the author’s propositions, which relate to, for example, the politics of inter-war Czechoslovakia and its minority policy. She also investigates issues of the resistance movement, which fought for the restoration of the Czechoslovak state in the years following World War II. Dejmek observes that the book under review often overlooks the international context of certain events. At the same time he also comments upon the selective manner in which they are chosen as well as considerable gaps in the use of English and American works on this topic, which contributes to rather numerous factual mistakes in this historian’s interpretation.
Key words: Czechoslovakia – history, minorities in Central Europe, history of the Communist bloc, revisionism
FASORA Lukáš – HANUŠ Jiří
The People in Moravia I-IV Project
(Člověk na Moravě I-IV Projekt), S. 359-363
The outcome of the project entitled Man in Moravia is a four-volume social history of Moravia in the period between the end of the 18th century and the end of the 20th century. The main aim of the project focusing on important personalities and the so-called socio-professional characters is to create an overview of Moravian social history. The secondary aims are to incite a discussion about social history among the members of the scholarly community and to invite researchers who excel in the issues of local provenience. The project included 8 editors with different specializations and 60 experts from universities, Academy of Science and archives. The project is part of the Centre for Studies in Central European History: Sources, Countries, Culture which has been co-ordinated by Jiří Malíř at the Faculty of Arts of Masaryk University since 2005.
Key words: Moravia, personalities, social history, culture
PETRÁŇ Josef, České dějiny ve znamení kultury (Výbor studií) (Culture in the Czech History /Selection of studies/) (Jiří Kubeš) S. 364-366
ČECH Zdirad J. K., Papežské znaky (The Papal Coats of Arms) (Tomáš Krejčík) S. 366-368
BOLDAN Kamil - URBÁNKOVÁ Emma, Rekonstrukce knihovny Bohuslava Hasištejnského z Lobkovic. Katalog inkunábulí roudnické lobkovické knihovny (Die Rekonstruktion der Bibliothek des Bohuslaus Hassenstein von Lobkowitz. Ein Katalog der Inkunabeln der Raudnitzer Lobkowitzer Bibliothek) (Jiří Pešek) S. 368-374
VOREL Petr, Stříbro evropském peněžním oběhu 16.-17. století (1472-1717) (Silver in the European Monetary Circulation 16th-17th Century /1472-1717/) (Tomáš Krejčík) S. 374-376
KNOZ Tomáš, Pobělohorské konfiskace. Moravský průběh, středoevropské souvislosti, obecné aspekty (The Post-White Mountain Confiscations. Moravian Course of Events, Central European Connections, General Aspects) (Jiří Pešek) S. 377-380
KUBEŠ Jiří, Trnitá cesta Leopolda I. za říšskou korunou (1657-1658) - Volby a korunovace ve Svaté říši římské v raném novověku (The Thorny Road of Leopold I. toward the Imperial Crown (1657-1658) – Elections and Coronations in the Holy Roman Empire during the Early Modern Period) (Petr Vorel) S. 380-382
FEJTOVÁ Olga - LEDVINKA Václav - PEŠEK Jiří (Hrsg.), Evropská velkoměsta za druhé světové války. Každodennost okupovaného velkoměsta. Praha 1939-1945 v evropském srovnání (European Cities during World War II. Everyday Life in an Occupied City. Prague 1939-1945 in a European Comparison) (Nina Lohmann) S. 382-385
MEZNÍK Jaroslav, Můj život za vlády komunistů (1948-1989) (My Life under Communist Rule /1948-1989/) (Jaroslav Pánek) S. 386-394
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