Český časopis historický 106 (2008), 1
Informationen zu diesem Beitrag
|Zeitschrift:||Český časopis historický|
|Herausgeber:||Historický ústav Akademie věd České republiky (Historisches Institut der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik)|
|Preis:||110 € (für ganzen Jahrgang)|
|Ausgabe:||106 (2008), 1|
ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
OBSAH / CONTENTS
STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES
Drobné otázky a záhady v studentském životě mistra Jeronýma Pražského (Minor Questions and Mysteries in the Student Life of Master Jerome of Prague), S. 1-18.
This analytical essay has emerged on the margins of a prepared edition of the academic works by Master Jerome of Prague (died 1416), which will be published in Corpus christianorum, continuatio mediaevalis. Its task is to free the introductory treatise from minute discrepancies, erroneous assumptions and unsubstantiated presuppositions which have surrounded the origins and study trips of this leader of Prague Wyclifism. Our research confirms that Jerome of Prague was born around 1378 in the New Town of Prague. His father Wenceslas was not very wealthy and he was probably close to the circle of Czech-minded Prague citizens around the Bethlehem Chapel. The first preserved evidence relates to September 1398, when Jerome succeeded in his baccalaurate determination. His promotor was Master Jan of Vysoké Mýto. It is likely that soon afterwards Jerome left for Oxford entrusted with the task of obtaining further copies of John Wycliff’s works. He returned to Prague before 12th March 1401 at the latest, when he testified in notary public dealings. He remained there at least until he was ordained as an acolyte on 19th March 1402.
Key words: Jerome of Prague, The Charles University, student life and trips, Czech reform movement, Wyclif and Wyclifism, the halls of medieval Oxford.
K novým možnostem studia trestněprávní problematiky. Obranné strategie mužů a žen obviněných ze smilstva na třeboňském panství (1650–1750) (On New Possibilities of Criminality Research. Defensive strategies of men and women accused of fornication on the Třeboň Estate (1650–1750)), S. 19-53.
In recent decades Western European historiography has shown considerable interest in the research of Early Modern criminality whereas in the Czech environment work with penal documents preserved from the period of the Early Middle Ages has until recently been marginalised. The first traces of a new research approach to criminal sources and attempts to formulate new questions to these problems can be found from the 1970s, especially in works done by French and British historians. In fact, historiographies of the German speaking countries, which might also serve as a good example for Czechs in the future, began to explore these issues in depth only in the 1990s, with the use of new methodological starting points. New ways of working with these sources, however, are not merely focused on the subject of Legal History. Indeed, they are based upon historical-anthropological starting points and they are also invaluable for Gender Studies and Micro-History. Instead of various attempts to reconstruct various non-existing structures, real man as an actor in history is the focus of their attention. Man, through offending against contemporary norms, could threaten his social status and find himself, as a consequence of his violation of the law, at the very margins of Early Modern society. It was behaving in line with the expected patterns of conduct that was the necessary condition for man not to find himself in the danger of being ousted from the majority of society. Similarly, research of differences between the official norm and a completely different Early Modern judicial practice has become another favourite theme. As a result of these new research approaches, there has been a partial shift away from the classical forms of „hard“ criminality towards „everyday criminality“, which, in general, reflected to a much larger degree, everyday situtations. For this reason these small delicts offer a present-day historian much greater possibilities for their consequent interpretation. Through these lenses, it is also possible to research defensive strategies of people who had committed illegitimate sexual relations on the Třeboň Estate at the end of the 17th century and at the beginning of the 18th century, with their evidence preserved in interrogation protocols from that period. Their testimonies make it possible to trace a conflict of two constructs of an idea of a woman which the interrogated persons offered to their interrogators. Whereas men sometimes attempted to describe an actual person with whom they had committed a forbidden act, in line with the stereotypical idea of a lascivious woman, tempting to commit sin and biologically predetermined to do wrong, the guilty women, on the contrary, attempted to portray themselves as innocent victims which jurisdiction should take under its wing, because they submitted to the temptations of men who failed to keep their promises. The outcome of the clash of these ideas had its impact not merely upon the punishment itself but often also upon the later lives of the accused because it involved their honour. At the same time any potential damage to one’s honour depended upon a number of circumstances which could have influenced their transgression – a promise of marriage, violence or alcohol. Research in this direction, thus, leads us to a better knowledge of everyday life in a village community and it offers a number of opportunities and questions for future research.
Key words: criminal sources, moral criminality, Early Modern judiciary, defensive strategies, marginalization, pregnancy, honour.
Praha – Vratislav, vzájemné vztahy v období raného novověku (Prague – Wroclaw, Mutual Links in the Early Modern Age), S. 54-79.
Initially topical local projects dealing with the history of mutual links between Silesia and the Czech Lands from the Middle Ages until the period of the Early Modern Age are introduced. It is noted that this research has focused upon political history on the one hand and the mutual cultural and art influences on the other. Limited interest in the issue of Czech-Silesian relations in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age has also found its echo in the lack of interest in the specific question of the mutual links between both land metropolises – Prague and Wroclaw.
Based on earlier and current research, the important, yet not unambiguous, role of mutual contacts between Prague and Wroclaw both on political, economic and cultural levels has been established. The above mentioned links, except for international trade, art influences and education for the Catholic inhabitants of Wroclaw, have until now been classed as rather minor in specialist literature. Shifts in the the importance of these contacts occurred in close connection with the political situation in both land entities. Breaks in this development were marked off by the Hussite period on one hand and later by the transfer of the ruling court to Bohemia and the onset of the Thirty Years’ War.
New opportunities for the research of relations between these two early Modern Age metropolises can only be provided through a close study of archival materials, principally in the Wroclaw State Archives and the Prague City Archives. Despite significant losses especially during the period of the Second World War, both archival institutions still offer abundant material for pursuing the given theme. However, as far as the Polish Archives are concerned, this might often be concealed in the less than clearly organized complex of secondary archival collections. Their complex is here assessed from the point of its testimonial value for the research topic. This contribution presents the first foray within the totality of preserved written material in both archival institutions. It focuses upon trade contacts; links within the framework of craft guilds; communication in the field of book-printing and the book trade; issues of religious relations; mutual migration and the journeys of Wroclaw envoys to the ruling court in Prague. The fundamental level of communication between the two cities – mutual correspondence – is not overlooked either.
This foray also confirmed relatively minor contacts between Prague and Wroclaw in the Early New Age. Yet, this will have to be substantiated through a further systematic study of preserved archival documents. The fundamental task for the future is primarily an evaluation of the relatively comprehensive collection of preserved written documents from the field of the judiciary incontestable, which can provide an insight into the links between the burghers of both cities, both on a professional level, as well as on a private one. The second direction for research should include comparative studies od different themes from the history of both early modern municipal centres.
Key words: Early Modern Age, Prague, Wroclaw, communication, correspondence, trade, crafts, book-printing, book trade, migration, level of education, religion.
Utváření konfesí, konfesionalizace a multikonfesionalita jako základní problém evropských dějin v 16. a 17. století. Nová německá literatura k problematice (Confessional Formation, Confessionalisation and Multi-confessionality as a Fundamental Problem of European history in the 16th and 17th centuries. New German Publications on the Issue), S. 80-108.
Through the Peace of Augsburg (1555) and its later pendant, the Peace of Westphalia (1648), the Holy Roman Empire was able to resolve problems emanating from church fission by erecting a system of bi-confessionality and parity. Controlled interaction between Catholics and Protestants within the Reichsverband (and in a plethora of bi-confessional territories and cities) were constitutive of the situation existing inside Germany.
Confessional formation and confessionalisation were central processes within the Holy Roman Empire, including its territories and cities, in the 16th and 17th centuries. Yet it is important not to lose sight of the limits to confessionalisation. The latter resulted, on the one hand, from secular thinking, something especially associated with the humanists; on the other hand, the imperial constitution itself formed a political barrier against any all-inclusive confessionalisation of state and society. For conflict regulation via a body of law enacted to that end was conducive to providing an outlet for confessional dissent.
Limits to confessionalisation were manifested on many social and existential planes in both the territories and the cities of the Holy Roman Empire. Especially, the regional and local topography—where the mosaic of small states and principalities guaranteed that the border was never far away—meant that daily life was often spared what would otherwise have been all-too-stark contrasts. Imperial state law, by systematically excluding the issue of theological truth, objectified the confessional divide. The principle of jurisdiction served to pacify, even as it fostered public peace and replaced weapons of war with pens of legal scholarship.
The imperial chivalry constituted a social group in which the limits to confessionalisation remained clearly drawn. The choices the aristocratic families made as to what confession to follow were evidently influenced by which neighbouring princes happened to be predominant and by prospects of obtaining sinecures in the imperial church. A Protestant estate in fee with the chance of being invested with an office induced, no less effectively, a gravitation to Protestantism, just as genuflecting to the Hapsburgs, or the Bavarian Wittelsbachers, as liege-lords together with the prospect of chapter appointments in the ecclesiastical territories on the Rhine, the Main, the Danube and the Salzach served to induce enthusiasm for the ideas of Catholic reform. The importance the imperial church possessed in terms of the sinecures it could confer on younger sons of the lesser aristocracy caused many an aristocrat to hesitate long and hard before opting for one confession or the other. Families and principals of the imperial chivalry often came to represent, in the 16th and early 17th centuries, zones best described as a “confessional no man’s land”. When under the leadership of Bavarian Wittelsbachers and Hapsburgs the Catholic side managed to keep within the Catholic fold the ecclesiastical principalities to the south and west of the Empire, the families of knights subject to the Emperor alone began to return to the old Church.
The Holy Roman Empire was home to three confessionally defined, opposing domains of culture, education and communication—one Catholic, one Protestant and one reformed (i.e. Calvinist). These three experiential spaces, as it were, were often more open to distant confessional brethren, even those from foreign parts, than they were to neighbours speaking the same language, to the extent they belonged to another confession. Thus scholars have talked of a confessional “Internationale” and even of pan-European “confessional cultures”.
Key words: Parity, Augsburg Peace of Religion, Peace of Westphalia, Cuius regio eius religio, Normal year (annus decretorius), Right of emigration (ius emigrandi), Confessional formation, Confessionalisation.
DISKUSE / DISCUSSION
Kasteláni, vilikové a beneficia v netransformované transformaci (Castle Bailiffs, Castle Stewards (villici) and Beneficia in an Untransformed Transformation), S. 109-136
OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS
Edícia Holokaust na Slovensku (The Holocaust in Slovakia Edition), S. 137-142.
ČADKOVÁ Kateřina - LENDEROVÁ Milena - STRÁNÍKOVÁ Jana (edd.), Dějiny žen aneb Evropská žena od středověku do poloviny 20. století v zajetí historiografie (Sborník příspěvků z IV. pardubického bienále 27.–28. dubna 2006), (Miloslava Melanová) s. 143 - SMITH Virginia, Clean. A History of personal Hygiene and Purity (Milena Lenderová) s. 147 - SCHUBERT Ernst, Königsabsetzungen im deutschen Mittelalter. Eine Studie zum Werden der Reichsverfassung (Ivan Hlaváček) s. 150 - HROCH Miroslav, Comparative Studies in Modern European History. Nation, Nationalism, Social Change (Luďa Klusáková) s. 153 - NEŠPOR Zdeněk R., Náboženství na prahu nové doby. Česká lidová zbožnost 18. a 19. století (Josef Táborský) s. 157 - BENEŠ Edvard, Deutschland und die Tschechoslowakei. Ein Beitrag zu einer historisch-politischen Diskussion. 70 Jahre nach dem Erscheinen neu herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Peter GERLINGHOFF (Eva Broklová) s. 161 - SKLENÁŘOVÁ Sylvie (uspoř.), České, slovenské a československé dějiny 20. století. II. Sborník z mezinárodní konference mladých vědeckých pracovníků (Svatava Raková) s. 163.
Prosecká 76, 190 00 Praha 9 – Nový Prosek
Copyright (c) 2013 by H-Net and Clio-online, all rights reserved. This work may be copied and redistributed for non-commercial, educational use if proper credit is given to the author and to the list. For other permission, please contact H-SOZ-U-KULT