|Zeitschrift:||Český časopis historický|
|Herausgeber:||Historický ústav Akademie věd České republiky (Historisches Institut der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Tschechischen Republik)|
|Preis:||110 € (für ganzen Jahrgang)|
|Ausgabe:||106 (2008), 3|
*ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ
THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
OBSAH / CONTENTS
STUDIE A MATERIÁLY / STUDIES AND ARTICLES
Prebendy nejstarších kolegiátních kapitul do sklonku 14. století (Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad)
(The Prebends of the Earliest Collegiate Chapters until the Close of the 14th Century /Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad/)
This study deals with the development of prebends in the earliest Bohemian collegiate chapters, established during the 11th century. After the collapse of original common property, prebends became the basis of each individual canon’s property background. Following the transitory period, this long-term process, during which the system of prebends was definitely established, finally culminated during the 13th and 14th centuries. Despite certain differences, especially in terms of the scope of their respective properties, the development of prebends in the Chapters under research shows similar features. The main focus of this work has been to define the degree to which individual prebends were related to the initial capitular merchandise from the era of communal living, or whether their basis was a newly acquired property.
Key words: Church, Middle Ages, collegiate chapter, prebend, provost, dean, scholastic, custodian, canon, Bohemia, Stará Boleslav, Litoměřice, Vyšehrad.
Albrecht z Valdštejna a severní maritimní plán
(Albrecht of Wallenstein and the Northern Maritime Plan)
This study outlines the origins, the course and causes leading to the failure of the so-called Northern Maritime Plan in the years 1626-1629. This was a Spanish plan to create a Hapsburg-Hanseatic trading company, which would be an instrument to oust the Dutch from the Baltic trade. This Plan was an instrument for Spanish diplomacy how to involve the armies of the Emperor and the Catholic League in the fight against the Low Countries. On the other side, Albrecht of Wallenstein viewed the Company as an instrument for concluding the defeat of Denmark and the conquest of the Baltic region. The discord between the interests of individual participants in the end caused the collapse of the entire Project. Yet, the idea of the establishment of a Portuguese Indian Company, which was at the very roots of the entire Project, survived the failure of this Plan and took place between the years 1628 and 1633.
Key words: Wallenstein Albrecht of, Duke 1583-1634; Thirty Years` War, 1618-1648 – history; Northern maritime plan 1624-1629; Olivares, Gaspar de Gurmán 1587-1645, Spanish statesman; Portugal - India - Business relations - 16th-17th centuries; Baltic - Trade - Thirty Years` War, 1618-1648; Spain - diplomatic relations - 17th century; Bohemia (Czech Republic) - diplomatic relations - 16th-17th centuries; Military leaders.
„Uplatňovat zdrženlivost.“ Reakce Washingtonu na československou krizi v roce 1968
(„Exercise Restraint.“ Washington’s Reaction to the 1968 Czechoslovak Crisis)
The article examines the role of the United States during the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Johnson’s restrained policy towards Czechoslovakia together with his willingness not to give up his pursuit of at least a symbolic start of SALT along with his unsuccessful attempt to end the war in Vietnam with a „possible“ Soviet help led to a certain „discrediting“ of American foreign policy. This subsequently resulted in the fact that, in 1968, the United States was simply not able to come up with a „meaningful alternative“ to challenge the reality of the Soviet power and rule in East-Central Europe.
Key words: United States, Czechoslovakia, Vietnam, Romania, Soviet invasion, relations, 1968, NATO, Warsaw Pact.
DISKUSE / DISCUSSION
Středoevropský model a jeho archeologické testování
(The Central European Model and its Archeological Verification)
This study contributes to discussions about the so-called Central European Model, which is said to define the first developmental stage of the Przemyslid State. The validity of this model is verified here using selected archeological resources from the period of Great Moravia. It is primarily based upon results from long-term research at the important Great Moravian agglomeration site at Pohansko near Břeclav. This study investigates spatial settlement structures from Pohansko and their counterparts from Western Europe. The interpretation questions the validity of the Central European Model, while it simultaneously outlines some differences between Western and Central Europe in the Early Medieval Ages.
Key words: the Early Medieval Ages, archeology, Great Moravia, Bohemia, Pohansko near Břeclav, the Central European Model.
Cesta Karla IV. do Francie. Příspěvek ke kritice Velkých francouzských kronik
(The Emperor Charles IV's visit to Paris. A Contribution to Criticism of The Grandes Chroniques de France)
This study critically reviews the chapters dealing with the journey of Charles IV to Paris (1377-1378), which are part of The Grandes Chroniques de France. It continues the critical insights of three researchers, namely Heinz Thomas, Françoise Autrand and Anne D. Hedeman, who have investigated The Grandes Chroniques de France of Charles V. It analyses the Emperor’s visit to Paris from the perspective of the French Court. It further reconstructs the possible attitude of Charles IV. to some specific events (i.e. his entry to Paris, festivities of the Epiphany, oaths of allegiance), which has not been sufficiently reflected in historiography.
Key words: Emperor Charles IV., French King Charles V., France, Paris, The Grandes Chroniques de France.
OBZORY LITERATURY / REVIEWS
Trauma let 1943/1944: Německo-italské vyrovnávání se s válečnou minulostí
(The Traumatic Years 1943/1944: Germans and Italians Coming to Terms with their Military Past)
This article outlines contemporary research on the German occupation of the Apennine Peninsula between 1943-1945 in German historiography. It focuses upon two studies by German historians, Kerstin von Lingen and Joachim Staron, who have investigated the impact of the occupation and repressions upon the Italian population in terms of the cultural memory of post-war (West) Germany and Italy. Lingen has followed the origins of the enduring myth of the Wermacht’s “clean war” on the Italian Front in West German society regarding the life of General Albert Kesselring. Staron, on the other hand, focuses upon the Italian myth of resistance, fed by memories of the massacre of prisoners and civilians at Fosse Ardeatine and Marzabotto. Both studies are devoted to cultural memories in both Germany and Italy and how they are perceived – Lingen concentrates upon the period of the two post-war decades, while Staron examines events until the 1990s. They base their work upon considerable resources and despite some of the above-mentioned reservations, their work provides a serious contribution to the post-war history of both states in relation to their military pasts.
Key words: a post-war culture of reminiscing in Germany and Italy, German historiography, the myth of the clean war of the Wermacht, General Kesselring, the myth of resistance, Fosse Ardeatine and Marzabotto.
KOS Dušan, In Burg und Stadt. Spätmittelalterlicher Adel in Krain und Untersteiermark (Robert Šimůnek) S. 658 – HROCH Miroslav, Das Europa der Nationen. Die moderne Nationsbildung im europäischen Vergleich (Milan Hlavačka) S. 661 – GEBHART Jan – KUKLÍK Jan, Velké dějiny zemí koruny české, Svazek XV.b 1938-1945 (Detlef Brandes) S. 666 – PEŠEK Jiří - TŮMA Oldřich - KITTEL Manfred – MÖLLER Horst (edd.), Německé menšiny v právních normách 1938-1948. Československo ve srovnání s vybranými evropskými zeměmi; KITTEL Manfred – MÖLLER Horst – PEŠEK Jiří – TŮMA Oldřich, Deutschsprachige Minderheiten 1945. Ein europäischer Vergleich (Detlef Brandes) S. 669.
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